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collagen function resource library  Collagen Research Products and Services

Medical Device Applications for Collagen

Listing of collagen-based medical devices
Application: General Collagen

This brochure provides a overview of the numerous collagen-based medical device applications that Collagen Solutions can support.

Medical Grade Soluble Collagen Benefits

Advantages of working with GMP soluble bovine collagen
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This brochure summarizes the numerous soluble collagen applications and the benefits of working with a medical grade, highly purified collagen source. To order, click here.

Off-the-Shelf Collagen Products

Standard GMP collagen products for use in research
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This brochure describes all of the standard collagen products that are supplied by Collagen Solutions. To order, click here.

Regenerative Orthopaedic Solutions

Overview of capabilities for orthopaedic medical devices
Application: General Collagen

This brochure highlights our experience and expertise in the development of orthobiologics, including bovine bone chips, Bone Graft Substitute, collagen scaffolds, decellularized ECM, collagen coatings, collagen particles, dressings & grafts, and flowable matrices.

Safe & Reliable Bovine Pericardium for Medical Devices

Tissue sourced from bovine with the lowest possible risk of BSE
Application: Pericardium

This brochure highlights our Quality and Logisitics standards and capabilities of our tissue procurement, processing, and delivery. 

Collagen Function Technical Resources  Collagen Function Technical Resources

3D Gel Formation Protocol

Procedure to form a 3D collagen gel
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This video demonstrates the steps taken to form a 3D gel using our soluble collagen and titration buffer. To order, click here.

Atelo Soluble Collagen White Paper

Soluble collagen instructions for use
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This white paper provides atelo collagen specifications, storage requirements, and protocols for use. To order, click here.

Biomaterials to Progress Research to Clinic

Comparison of medical vs. research grade collagen
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This technical highlight summarizes the unique physical properties of collagen and the benefits of using medical grade collagen transition technologies into the clinic. To order, click here.

Bovine Tendon Long Fibre Powder White Paper

Lyophilized, long fibre polymeric collagen application overview
Application: Bone, Application: Bone/Cartilage, Application: Dental, Application: General Collagen

This white paper provides collagen specifications, storage requirements, and application details for long fibre milled powder from tendon.

Collagen for Cell Delivery

Literature review of collagen carriers for cells
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This review provides an overview of numerous applications where collagen has been investigated as delivery vehicle for cell therapies.

Collagen for Drug Delivery

Literature review of collagen carriers for biomolecules
Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen

This review provides an overview collagen carriers for a variety of drug delivery applications.

Exclusive IP position for a Unique Pericardium Biomaterial

Unique Pericardium Biomaterial with Advantages for TAVR, TMVR & Other Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapies
Application: Pericardium

This technical highlight summarizes the unique pericardium biomaterial properties and their advantages to percutaneous delivery devices for TAVR, TMVR & other transcatheter cardiovascular therapies. 

Fibrillar Collagen White Paper

Fibrillar collagen instructions for use
Application: Bone, Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery, Application: General Collagen, Application: Wound

This white paper provides fibrillar collagen specifications, storage requirements, and protocols for use.

Lyophilized Polymeric Collagen White Paper

Lyophilized polymeric collagen application overview
Application: Bone, Application: Bone/Cartilage, Application: Cartilage, Application: Dental, Application: General Collagen, Application: Tendon, Application: Tendon/Bone (Rotator Cuff), Application: Wound

This white paper provides collagen specifications, storage requirements, and application details for neutral polymeric powder from tendon.

Support for Bovine Collagen in Medical Devices

Justification for the use of bovine animal tissues in medical devices
Application: General Collagen

This literature review addresses the advantages of using collagen in medical devices and clarifies the perceived risks associated with the use of bovine sources.

Collagen Resources Publications  Collagen Resources Publications

A Gel Aspiration-Ejection System for the Controlled Production and Delivery of Injectable Dense Collagen Scaffolds

Kamranpour NO et al. 2016. Biofabrication. doi:10.1088/1758-5090/8/1/015018
Application: Bone

A gel aspiration-ejection (GAE) system has been developed for the advanced production and delivery of injectable dense collagen (I-DC) gels of unique collagen fibrillar densities (CFDs)....read more

A Methylcellulose and Collagen Based Temperature Responsive Hydrogel Promotes Encapsulated Stem Cell Viability and Proliferation In Vitro

Payne C et al. 2017. Drug Deliv & Transl Res. 7:132-146
Application: Cell Delivery

With the number of stem cell-based therapies emerging on the increase, the need for novel and efficient delivery technologies to enable therapies to remain in damaged tissue and exert their therapeutic benefit for extended periods, has become a key requirement for their translation....read more

A Micro-Architecturally Biomimetic Collagen Template for Mesenchymal Condensation Based Cartilage Regeneration

Younesi M et al. 2016. Acta Bio. 30: 212-221
Application: Bone/Cartilage, Application: Cartilage

The unique arcade-like orientation of collagen fibers enables cartilage to bear mechanical loads. In this study continuous-length aligned collagen threads were woven to emulate the interdigitated arcade structure of the cartilage....read more

Acellular Hydroxyapatite-Collagen Scaffolds Support Angiogenesis and Osteogenic Gene Expression in an Ectopic Murine Model: Effects of Hydroxyapatite Volume Fraction

Jeagher MJ et al. 2016. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 104A: 2178-2188
Application: Bone

Acellular hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced collagen scaffolds were previously reported to induce angiogenesis and osteogenesis after ectopic implantation but the effect of the HA volume fraction was not investigated....read more

Age Dependent Differences in Collagen Alignment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium

Sizeland KH et al. 2014. BioMed Res Int. 1-14
Application: Pericardium

Bovine pericardium is used for heart valve leaflet replacement where the strength and thinness are critical properties. Pericardium from neonatal animals (4–7 days old) is advantageously thinner and is considered as an alternative to that from adult animals....read more

Biologic and Synthetic Grafts in the Reconstruction of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears

Gillespie RJ et al. 2016. AAOS. 24(12): 823-828
Application: Tendon/Bone (Rotator Cuff)

Rotator cuff injuries are common in both young and elderly patients. Despite improvements in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the failure rates following tendon reconstruction remain unacceptably high. To improve outcomes, graft patches have been developed to provide mechanical strength and to furnish a scaffold for biologic growth across the delicate tendon-bone junction....read more

Biomaterials with Enhanced Properties and Devices Made Therefrom

Cunanan et al. 2015 Patent No.: US 9095430B2
Application: Pericardium

Biomaterials with enhanced properties such as improved strength, flexibility, durability and reduced thickness are use ful in the fabrication of biomedical devices, particularly those Subjected to continuous or non-continuous loads where repeated flexibility and long-term durability are required....read more

Biomimetic Scaffold Design for Tendon Tissue Engineering to Enhance Mechanoresponse and Tenogenesis

Islam A et al. 2017. Dissertation (Case Western Reserve University)
Application: Tendon

Tendon disorders are some of the most common musculoskeletal problems. Despite improvements in surgical techniques, revision of tendon tear surgery is significantly high....read more

Bovine Pericardium Based Non-Cross Linked Collagen Matrix for Successful Root Coverage, a Clinical Study in Human

Schlee M et al. 2012. Head Face Med. 8:6
Application: Pericardium

The aim of this study was to clinically assess the capacity of a novel bovine pericardium based, non-cross linked collagen matrix in root coverage. 62 gingival recessions of Miller class I or II were treated. The matrix was adapted underneath a coronal repositioned split thickness flap. Clinical values were assessed at baseline and after six months....read more

Collagen as a Biological Glue for Cell Spraying in Wound Healing

Simpliciano C et al. TERMIS Americas, 2016 Annual Meeting
Application: Wound

In the US, about 6.5 million patients are treated for chronic wounds and burns, with a yearly financial burden of over $25 billion dollars. Worldwide, burns result in 265,000 deaths per year.  Currently, the gold standard for wound therapy is the use of either split- or full-thickness autologous skin grafts....read more

Collagen Fibril Strain, Recruitment and Orientation for Pericardium Under Tension and the Effect of Cross Links

Kayed HR et al. 2015. RSC Adv. 5: 103703-103712
Application: Pericardium

The structural response of collagen fibrils in pericardium and other tissues when subjected to strain and the effect of cross linking on those structural changes are not well understood. Specifically, there is uncertainty about whether natural cross links of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and synthetic cross links of glutaraldehyde have a mechanical function....read more

Collagen Substrate Stiffness Anisotropy Affects Cellular Elongation, Nuclear Shape, and Stem Cell Fate Toward Anisotropic Tissue Lineage

Islam A et al. 2016. Adv Health Mat. 5(17): 2237-2247
Application: Tendon

Rigidity of substrates plays an important role in stem cell fate. Studies are commonly carried out on isotropically stiff substrate or substrates with unidirectional stiffness gradients....read more

Cross Linking and Fibril Alignment in Pericardium

Kayed HR et al. 2015. RSC Adv. 5: 3611-3618
Application: Pericardium

The influence of natural cross linking by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on the structure of collagen in animal tissue is not well understood. Neither is the effect of synthetic cross linking on collagen structure well understood in glutaraldehyde treated collagenous tissue for medical implants and commercial leather....read more

Delivery of the Improved BMP-2-Advanced Plasmid DNA Within a Gene-Activated Scaffold Accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis and Critical Size Defect Repair

Raftery RM et al. 2018. J Cont Rel. 283: 20-31
Application: Bone

Gene-activated scaffolds have been shown to induce controlled, sustained release of functional transgene both in vitro and in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent mediators of osteogenesis however we found that the delivery of plasmid BMP-2 (pBMP-2) alone was not sufficient to enhance bone formation....read more

Ectopic Bone Formation in Rapidly Fabricated Acellular Injectable Dense Collagen-Bioglass Hybrid Scaffolds via Gel Aspiration-Ejection

Miri AK et al. 2016. Biomaterials. 85: 128-141
Application: Bone

Gel aspiration-ejection (GAE) has recently been introduced as an effective technique for the rapid production of injectable dense collagen (IDC) gel scaffolds with tunable collagen fibrillar densities (CFDs) and microstructures...read more

Effect of Actuating Cell Source on Locomotion of Organic Living Machines with Electrocompacted Collagen Skeletons

Webster VA et al. 2016. Bioins & Biomim. 11(3): 1-13
Application: Cardiac Muscle

In robotics, there is a need for small scale, compliant actuators for use in medical applications or minimally invasive environmental monitoring. Biohybrid devices offer one solution to this need by using muscle cells to actuate compliant scaffolds....read more

Effects of Substrate Stiffness on the Tenoinduction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Islam A et al. 2017. Acta Biomater. 58:244-253
Application: Tendon

Extracellular matrix modulus plays an important role in regulating cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation during regular and diseased states....read more

Electrospin Silk-Collagen Scaffolds and BMP-14 for Ligament and Tendon Repair and Regeneration

Maghdouri-White Y et al. 2018. Biomed Phys & Eng Exp. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2010-2165
Application: Tendon

Regenerative ligament and tendon repair scaffolds have been highly researched, yet few match the mechanical properties of native tissue, while fewer drugs have been explored for enhancing cell infiltration into the damaged tissu...read more

Evaluation of a Collagen-Coated, Resporbable Fiber Scaffold Loaded with a Peptide Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Mimetic in a Sheep Model of Rotator Cuff Repair

Peterson DR et al. 2015. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 24(11) 1764-1773
Application: Tendon

A new scaffold design combined with a peptide growth factor was tested prospectively for safety and for improved tendon healing in sheep. The infraspinatus tendon was detached and then surgically repaired to the humerus using sutures and anchors in 50 adult sheep....read more

Evaluation of Fibroblast Behavior on a Collagen-Based Spray Adhesive

Simpliciano C et al. Society for Biomaterials, 2017 Annual Meeting
Application: Wound

The ongoing search for a suitable surgical adhesive is fueled by deficiencies of current products such as mechanical properties, bonding strengths and curing times. An adhesive in a sprayable form has much appeal for ease of application. Collagen has shown great potential as an adhesive for its biocompatibility, blood absorption and hemostatic properties1....read more

Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of All-Trans Retinoic Acid Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an A549 Epithelial Cell Line Model

Payne CM et al. 2019. Pharm Res. 36:50
Application: Cell Delivery, Application: Drug Delivery

To investigate two potential strategies aimed at targeting the inflammatory pathogenesis of COPD: a small molecule, all trans retinoic acid (atRA) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs).
Methods...read more

Flow Simulation of a Natural Polymer in a Syringe-Needle Delivery Device

Syntouka IM et al. 2018. ECCM6 & ECFD 7
Application: Cell Delivery

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, affect a large number of the erderly population and still remain untreated. In recent years, cell therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. To increase cell viability, biomaterials are often used as scaffolds and facilitate cell deposition, through injection, to the site of interest....read more

Formulation of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogens for Drug Delivery

Lieberthal T, Kao WH. 2016. Polymeric Drug Delivery Techniques. Sigma-Aldrich Spotlight. 31-35
Application: Drug Delivery

Although described as a “bioinert” drug delivery platform, PEG hydrogels can also incorporate bioactive materials, such as extracellular matrix amino acid motifs or macromolecules such as collagen....read more

Heparinized Collagen Sutures for Sustained Delivery of PDGF-BB: Delivery Profile and Effects on Tendon-Derived Cells In-Vitro

Younesi M et al. 2017. Acta Bio. 41: 100-109
Application: Tendon

Suturing is the standard of repair for lacerated flexor tendons. Past studies focused on delivering growth factors to the repair site by incorporating growth factors to nylon sutures which are commonly used in the repair procedure. However, conjugation of growth factors to nylon or other synthetic sutures is not straightforward....read more

Immediate Production of a Tubular Dense Collagen Construct with Bioinspired Mechanical Properties

Ghezzi CE. 2012. Acta Bio. 8: 1813-1825
Application: General Collagen

The intrinsic complexity of tissues and organs demands tissue engineering approaches that extend beyond planar constructs currently in clinical use. However, the engineering of cylindrical or tubular tissue constructs with a hollow lumen presents significant challenges arising from geometrical and architectural considerations required to tailor biomaterials for tissue and organ repair....read more

Influence of Telopeptides on the Structural and Physical Properties of Polymeric and Monomeric Acid-Soluble Type I Collagen

Holmes R et al. 2017. Mater Sci & Eng. C. 77:823-827
Application: General Collagen

<p>Currently two factors hinder the use of collagen as building block of regenerative devices: the limited mechanical strength in aqueous environment, and potential antigenicity. Polymeric collagen is naturally found in the cross-linked state and is mechanically tougher than the monomeric, acid-soluble collagen ex vivo....read more

Labeling of Collagen Type I Templates with a Naturally Derived Contrast Agent for Noninvasive MR Imaging in Soft Tissue Engineering

Janke HP et al. 2018. Adv Health Mat. https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201800605
Application: General Collagen

In vivo monitoring of tissue‐engineered constructs is important to assess their integrity, remodeling, and degradation. However, this is challenging when the contrast with neighboring tissues is low, necessitating labeling with contrast agents (CAs), but current CAs have limitations (i.e., toxicity, negative contrast, label instability, and/or inappropriate size)....read more

Nerve Growth Factor Released from Collagen Scaffolds Protects Axotomized Cholinergic Neurons of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Organotypic Brain Slices

Foidl BM et al. 2017. J of Neu Meth. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2017.12.003.
Application: Drug Delivery

Background: Alzheimer´s disease is accompanied by cell death of cholinergic neurons, resulting in cognitive impairment and memory loss. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the most potent protein to support survival of cholinergic neurons....read more

On-Demand Release of Hydrosoluble Drugs from a Paramagnetic Porous Collagen-Based Scaffold

Bettini S et al. 2016. Chem Eur J. 22: 1-9
Application: Drug Delivery

The design of a collagen scaffold containing iron oxide nanostructures capped by a TiO2 (anatase) layer is reported....read more

Pneumatospinning of Collagen Microfibers from Benign Solvents

Polk S et al. 2018. Biofabrication. https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aad7d0
Application: General Collagen

Introduction. Current collagen fiber manufacturing methods for biomedical applications, such as electrospinning and extrusion, have had limited success in clinical translation, partially due to scalability, cost, and complexity challenges....read more

Protease-Sensitive Atelocollagen Hydrogels Promote Healing in a Diabetic Wound Model

Tronci G et al. 2016. J Mater Chem B. 4: 7249-7258
Application: Wound

The design of exudate-managing wound dressings is an established route to accelerated healing, although such design remains a challenge from material and manufacturing standpoints....read more

Repair of Large Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions Using a Novel Multilayered Tissue Engineered Construct in an Equine Athlete

Stack JD et al. 2016. J of TERM.
Application: Bone/Cartilage

Osteochondral lesions resulting from osteochondritis dissecans are problematic to treat and present a significant challenge for clinicians....read more

Scaffold Design for Artificial Tissue With Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Noreikaite A et al. 2017. Medicina. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2017.07.001
Application: General Collagen

Objective: The aim of this study was to test polymeric materials (collagen, fibrin, polyimide film, and polylactic acid) for single- and multi-layer scaffold formation....read more

Structurally Graduated Collagen Scaffolds Applied to the Ex Vivo Generation of Platelets from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Megakaryocytes: Enhancing Production and Purity

Shepherd JH et al. 2018. Biomaterials. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.08.019.
Application: Cell Delivery

Platelet transfusions are a key treatment option for a range of life threatening conditions including cancer, chemotherapy and surgery. Efficient ex vivo systems to generate donor independent platelets in clinically relevant numbers could provide a useful substitute....read more

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Decellularized Pericardium: Mechanical and Structural Characterization for Applications in Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Halfwerk FR et al. 2018. J of Mech Behav of Biomed Mat. 77: 400-407
Application: Pericardium

Introduction: Many biomaterials are used in cardio-thoracic surgery with good short-term results. However, calcification, dehiscence, and formation of scar tissue are reported. The aim of this research is to characterise decellularised pericardium after supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing as an alternative biological material for uses in cardio-thoracic surgery....read more

Synthesis and Fabrication of Nanocomposite Fibers of Collagen-Cellulose Nanocrystals by Coelectrocompaction

Cudjoe E et al. 2017. Biomac. 18(4): 1259-1267
Application: General Collagen

An electrochemical process has been used to compact cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and access aligned micron-sized CNC fib...read more

The Effect of Different Collagen Modifications for Titanium and Titanium Nitrite Surfaces on Functions of Gingival Fibroblasts

Ritz U et al. 2016. Clin Oral Invest. 21: 1
Application: Dental

Targeted modifications of the bulk implant surfaces using bioactive agents provide a promising tool for improvement of the long-term bony and soft tissue integration of dental implants....read more

Therapeutic Efficacy of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Loaded Collagen Scaffolds in Ex Vivo Organotypic Brain Slice Parkinson's Disease Models

Ucar B and Humpel C. 2019. Brain Res Bul. 149:86-95
Application: Drug Delivery

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent trophic factor that supports the survival of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), which degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The application of GDNF to the brain is challenging but biomaterials such as collagen can present novel strategies to target therapeutics to the brain....read more

Towards an Effective, Needle-Based Delivery Device for Parkinson's Disease: A Simulation Study on the Impact of Needle Diameter

Syntouka et al. 2018.8th World Congress of Biomechanics
Application: Cell Delivery

Recently, several therapies have emerged for Parkinson’s disease, a challenging neurodegenerative disorder. However, clinical translation is restricted, partially due to limitations in delivering therapeutics to the Central Nervous System (CNS) which cannot be reached by systemic administration....read more

Translating the Role of Osteogenic-Angiogenic Coupling in Bone Formation: Highly Efficient Chitosan-pDNA Activated Scaffolds Can Accelerate Bone Regeneration in Critical-Sized Bone Defects

Raftery RM et al. 2017. Biomaterials. 149: 116-127
Application: Bone, Application: Bone/Cartilage

The clinical translation of bioactive scaffolds for the treatment of large segmental bone defects has remained a challenge due to safety and efficacy concerns as well as prohibitive costs....read more